The android operating system or Android OS is an open-source (Free to use for anyone) operating system. Android was developed targeting all touchscreen devices such as smartphones, tablets, and smartwatches, etc. The android operating system is developed base on modified Linux Kernel and other open-source software. The Android OS was written in Java, C, and C++ programming languages. Programmer and Application developers can use Java, C# (Xamrin), Python, and other modern languages to develop android applications and software. But officially Java is used for Android development.
In October 2003, Android was developed in Palo Alto of California, USA. Andy Rubin, Nick Sears, Rich Miner, and Chris White were android developers and founders of Android Inc. In July 2005, Android Inc. was bought by Google for $50 million. On November 5, 2007, Google teamed up the Open Handset Alliance(OHA) to develop the first platform for mobile devices to make better applications of the Android operating system to real life. HTC Dream or T-Mobile G1 was the first commercial device running the Android OS that was released in 2008.
OHA includes device manufacturing companies such as Samsung Electronics, HTC, Motorola, Sony, Dell, and Google, Wireless device makers like Sprint Corporation and T-Mobile, and microprocessors and chipset makers companies such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments. On the other hand, OHA has competitors developing Operating systems based on Linux Kernel like Symbian Foundation and LiMo Foundation.
Firstly, In the above paragraphs, we got information about the Android OS and its foundation. To get it better, we should know about the Operating system or OS. OS is a low-level software or system software that controls the hardware, manages data, scheduling tasks, and provides you simple application software for users.
Here I think it is necessary to have words on examples of OSs. Windows, Macintosh, and Linux are computer OS. Nokia Asha Platform is a Nokia phone Operating system. Apple uses iOS (iPhone Operating system) OS for iPhone, IPad, and I watch. Other brands like Samsung, Pixel (Google smartphone), HTC, Sony, Lenovo, ZTE, Huawei, and OPPO use the Android OS to run their smartphones.
Android OS Versions 1.0 to Android 10
Every mobile phone, tablet, and other devices come new to the market have more modern versions, better performance, and new features to make the device much more user-friendly. Android’s initial version is Android 1.0, and the latest version is Android 10. Android gives a name to every Android Operating system version. The Android OS names are the names of the desserts. Like Cupcake, Donut and Ice Cream sandwich, etc. So for more information, let’s jump to more information about every Android version by version.
On September 23, 2008, an android made its official debut and released Android 1.0 under no name code like Cupcake, or my favorite Donut. Android was installed in the T-Mobile G1 or HTC Dream. Google and Open headset Alliance (OHA) release all other updates from Android 1.0 to the latest version to Android 10 are based on the initial release of Android.
Moreover, On February 9, 2009, Android 1.1 released with API level 2. Initially, Android 1.1 was released only for T-Mobile G-1. This update resolved bugs, updated API level from API 1 to API 2, and added numbers of features Like searches for a business on maps, longer in-call screen timeout, and support marquee in page layout.
After a couple of months, Android released Android 1.5 with a unique dessert name “Cupcake” on April 27, 2009. The Cupcake brings several google apps, Bluetooth feature, and an on-screen keyboard. Cupcake has API level 3. Android “Donut succeeds this.” Android 1.6 released on September 15, 2009. Remember, this Android version is unfortunately retired and no longer supported. Its new features were battery usage indicator, different screen sizes, and a text-to-speech engine. Donut is the fourth version of the Android operating system.
Android 2.0 – 2.1 “Eclair”
October 26, 2009, Google announced upper API level 5-7 with Android Eclair version 2.0 and 2.1. Nexus one was one of the smartphones using Android Éclair. This version of Android was the first Android version supporting HTML. Other features of this Android Operating System include Google Maps 3.2.1, Home screen displays google search bar, Gallery tools for editing pictures, and live wallpapers, which are animating wallpapers and screen backgrounds.
Android 2.2 – 2.2.3 “Froyo”
Moreover, Android 2.3 – 2.3.7 released in the same year after some months on December 6, 2010. Android 2.3 – 2.3.7 has codename Gingerbread. The main features version of the Gingerbread Android Operating System is support for SIP VoIP internet telephones, improvement in texting using a virtual keyboard with better text suggestions, and Support for WebM/VP8 video playback and AAC audio encoding.
Android 3.0 – 3.2.6 “HoneyComb”
HoneyComb is the 8th version of the Android Operating System. This version is no longer supported in any device. This version was released with the phone Motorola Xoom on February 22, 2011. Many featured and screen appearance was brought by this version, like the customizable home screen, redesigned virtual keyboard, and larger keyboards, especially for keyboards, multiple browser tabs, and incognito for anonymous browsing.
Android 4.0 – 4.0.4 “Ice Cream Sandwich”
Google unveiled the 9th version of the Android Operating System under the codename “Ice Cream Sandwich” on October 19, 2011. Moreover, The Ice Cream Sandwich brought better changes in new looks and new system fonts, Screenshots, Home screen improvements, Instant voice, Unified API for both smartphone and tablet, Social API, and VPN client API.
In addition, Android “Jelly bean” has been released after “Ice Cream Sandwich” on July 9, 2012. Jelly bean becomes faster and smoother then preceding Android Operating System and includes better features such as OpenGL ES 3.0 for high graphical performances, Enhanced Bluetooth connectivity, and new media features, and much more creative apps.
Moreover, KitKat is the 11th version of the Android Operating System. It was unveiled on September 3, 2013, with tons of features and apps. KitKat brought better memory management to run off the device of 512MB of RAM. KitKat featured cooperative multi-tasking, many google apps upgraded like hangout app.
Android 5.0 – 5.1.1 “Lollipop”
Lollipop came into the technology market on November 12, 2014. Lollipop is the 12th version of the Android Operating System.Secondly, The Lollipop featured several security features, a Smart look connection with identified Bluetooth devices, Guest logins and more than one user accounts, auto data encryption, better virus and malware protection via default security application and software and restricting the use of screen applications.
Android 6.0 – 6.0.1 “Marshmallow”
Google officially announced the release of Android version 13th on October 5, 2015, under the codename “Marshmallow”. The first smartphone that received this update was Nexus. The latest update of Marshmallow held on October 3, 2017, updated Android 6.0 to Android 6.0.1. The best feature in the update is the native fingerprint security system. Some other features are Volume control slider, App links, putting the inactive app to sleep, and Android pay.
Android 7.0 – 7.1.2 “Nougat”
Nougat also named Android “N,” was coming on August 22, 2016, and the latest update released on August 5, 2019, six months ago. Android “N” is the 14th version of the Android OS.
Moreover, The new feature of the Android on this version is a split-screen mode, a better dose for longer device battery life, customizable quick settings menu, new system UI tuner, data saver, and call blocking.
Android 8.0 – 8.1 “Oreo”
Android Oreo also named Android “O.” It is the 15th version of the Android. In addition, The first release of Android Oreo or Android O was on August 21, 2017, and the latest update released on February 3, 2020, 8.1.0.Moreover, It contains a significant number of features such as field and password auto-fill, picture in picture, Notification channels, Notification dots, notification snooze, Auto-Enable Wi-Fi, and smart text selection.
Android 9.0 “Pie”
Furthermore, Officially Google releases the 16th version of Android on August 6, 2018, and gives codename “Pie” also called Android “P”. It is the second latest version of Android.Similarly, The significant features of this release contain advance security systems for smartphones and tablets, Slices, Adaptive battery and brightness, and App actions.
Moreover, Google changed its traditional way of giving codename to it every Android OS release. Android 10 has no codename, and it is the latest version 10th major release and 17th version of Android. Furthermore, The features of Android 10 are amazing like the dark theme, Smart reply in all messaging apps, 5G compatibility, Fit for foldable devices like Samsung fold and Huawei Mate X, direct sending update to phone, Edge to edge nods for edge devices, New parental controls, Live captions, Camera focus modes, Incognito mode for Google Maps for secret searches, Improved location, and privacy tools.
In conclusion, Android Operating System or Android OS is the best OS for smartphones and tablets.Therefore, It has the best worldwide market. It is open-source software, and anyone can use it for free. As a result, many Mobile companies use Android for their devices such as Samsung, Pixel (Google), Huawei, OPPO, Vivo, and others. In this article, we provide you a piece of brief information about the Android OS. So, This article is beneficial and full of information about Android OS.